Friday, May 22, 2020

International Bribery Regulation And The Bribery Act 2010

2.4 International Bribery Regulation and the Bribery Act 2010 2.4.1 Development of National and Transnational Ethics Regulations The development of national and international bribery legislation and regulation has been a slow process spanning many centuries, stemming from the recognition of Piracy as the first and true international crime (Duhaime’s Law Dictionary, 2015). Although wide agreement exists on the detrimental impacts of bribery and corrupt practices, many individual countries and transnational industries (including that of civil engineering) fear implementation of tough anti-bribery legislation will cause unfair competitive disadvantages compared to their counterparts from countries where foreign bribery is not criminalised (OECD Observer, 2012). The first major push to implement anti-bribery legislation was taken by the United States with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) 1977; this law made it illegal for certain classes of U.S. persons to make payments to foreign government officials to assist in obtaining or retaining business (U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). The broader development of ethics based law and regulation has developed primarily throughout the 20th century; particularly post 1950 when most of the worlds Inter Governmental Organisations (IGOs) had been established. Some of the most important IGOs in this area include the United Nations (UN), World Bank, World Economic Forum (WEF) and Organisations for Economic Co-operations andShow MoreRelatedForeign Partnership Act Case Study1269 Words   |  6 PagesAfter a thorough examination of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, 15 U.S.C  §Ã‚ §78dd-1 (FCPA) and the United Kingdom’s Bribery Act of 2010. It is recommended that The Pho ne and Build pay the $1000 expedited service fee to hear the results of the bid before its made public. This determination supersedes the Growastan’s deputy minister of communications other three offers that included paying him $100,000, giving him a Maserati, or donating $100,000 to his son’s political campaignRead MoreSiemens Ag Bribery1261 Words   |  6 PagesSiemens AG Bribery Scandal This paper will focus on the analysis of the well-known and popular bribery scandal in the world, such as Siemens AG Bribery Scandal which occurred in November, 2006. Siemens AG is one of the largest and most popular electrical engineering companies operated in the world. The present company was founded in 1847 in Berlin and is now headquartered in Munich, Germany. The discussion and the proper analysis of this bribery scandal will help to learn many effective lessonsRead MoreLaundering Act 2010 Of Britain, Canada And China2161 Words   |  9 PagesBritain, Canada and China. The Bribery Act 2010 of Britain As far as Britain is concrned, the Bribery Act 2010 should be highly alerted, which is intended to establish law framework covering domestic and foreign bribery. Besides that, some of its terms can be called as the world s most severe act to fight foreign corruption. Furthemore, the act has come into effect on July 1, 2011. Also, it will rise the business organizations’ duties on the prevention of bribery to the level of legal obligationsRead MoreThe Foreign Corrupt Practices Act1551 Words   |  7 PagesThe foreign Corrupt Practices Act prohibits paying or offering anything of value to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping a business. The FCPA was enacted by congress in 1977 due to various reports that were made by the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC). The Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) reported different issues concerning bribery and illegal payments by United Sates companies. The FCPA states that it’s unlawful to make payments to fo reign officials; having a corruptRead MoreGlaxoSmithKline In China CaseAnalysis Essay1718 Words   |  7 Pagesof 2013 due to alleged accusation of bribery and unethical business misconduct. Four of GlaxoSmithKline’s employees were arrested and detained while further investigation into the matter was conducted for bribing physician, government officials and hospital administrators in order to increase sales for GSK (Quelch Rodriguez, 2013). GSK has a third part code of conduct which all of its employees know. This code of conduct outlines the rules and regulations they should abide by when doing businessRead MoreCorruption and Bribery1795 Words   |  8 PagesCorruption and Bribery April 29, 2015 Abstract In this paper, I will be writing about corruption and bribery. I will define the terms and go on to explain the regulations that have been put in place to stop corruption and bribery. I will then go on to give examples of major corruption and bribery scandals that companies have recently been in and what has been done to punish said companies for their crime. Intro Corruption is defined in the Merriam-Webster DictionaryRead MoreGlobalism and Foreign Corrupt Practices Act1489 Words   |  6 Pagesare so closely linked under the rubric of International business, most countries believe that they are part of the social requirement of both national and international business. The United States Government, in fact, has a specific federal law, called the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (1977) that focuses on accounting practices reported to the Securities and Exchange Commission (based on an earlier 1934 Act) and bribery of foreign officials. This act has two major sections that are relevant toRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution Sparked Invention1349 Words   |  6 PagesDesigners should use the best scientific knowledge available. †¢ Scientists had a duty to develop environmental knowledge. †¢ Ignorance was no defence under international law for ecological damage. In 2002, Johannesburg world summit on sustainable development introduced the concept of ‘Sustainable consumption and production’ leading to a number of international agreements. The main focus was to establish a link between productivity, resource usage and levels of pollution. The specific agreements were: †¢Read MoreIA1 Essay1918 Words   |  8 Pagesbeen a lot of increase in expanding companies throughout other countries. In order for a CEO of a company based in USA to move some of its operations to China, it’s best to understand the foreign and local policy that is in placed in China and the bribery scandal that involved four employees of GlaxoSmithKline. This case study will examined the GSK scandal by analyzing the case that involved the four employees, the Chinese government, assessing GSK’s response, lessons learned in order to provide theRead MoreBribery Corruption2102 Words   |  9 PagesBribery and Corruption: Is Signing the OECD Convention Enough? Darina Tomayeva 500127919 LAW724 Professor Lan Word Count: 1645 Bribery and Corruption: Is Signing the OECD Convention Enough? Before the 1990’s, the conventional belief was that corruption in developing countries was practically inevitable and in some cases even desirable. However, a more in-depth investigation into this issue suggests that bribery and corruption can cause significant problems for all parties involved. For

Monday, May 18, 2020

Different Types Of Parenting Styles Essay - 2254 Words

Research Paper Maria Whitney Western Kentucky University Abstract As we all know each person is different. Each person is raised differently. So it is clear that since people are different from one another that their parenting styles will be different. But what parenting style is hurting one child’s development and well-being? For this assignment I read several articles about the different types of parenting styles and I have learned which type of parenting style helps or hurts a child’s development. Research Paper Parenting has changed over the years. Parents treat their children differently from other parents all around the world. Parents may believe that they are doing the best they can when raising their child but are their parenting styles hurting their child’s development? This paper will cover the different types of parenting styles and their advantages and disadvantages. Parenting style: The effects on social and emotional development in children Studies show that parents who are involved in their children’s lives help their children develop a more positive outlook on life and help develop a better educational guide for their children. A positive and supportive parenting style can help a child have a positive and healthy social and emotional self. The types of parenting styles could include authoritative parenting style. An authoritative style is a warming, structured, and setting expectations to their children and family. The social and emotionalShow MoreRelatedDifferent Types Of Parenting Styles880 Words   |  4 Pagesaround and observe our everyday life we will notice that we see many different types of parenting styles. Many parents create their own parenting style based on important factors like culture, education, and religion. Generally there are two main types of parenting style proposed. These two styles seem alike but are very much different from each other. Strict parent and the not so strict parent. The two approaches towards parenting differ from each other and this is why. There are some parentsRead MoreDifferent Types Of Parenting Styles1495 Words   |  6 PagesParenting styles have been described by Diana Baumrind into four categories, authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful, and indulgent parenting (Santrok 461). Parenting styles can be defined as patterns of attitudes in how parents choose to express and communicate with their children. This paper will examine the different type of parenting styles as it relates to ethnicity and various cultures. What exactly is ethnicity and culture? The Oxford Dictionary defines ethnicity as â€Å"the fact or state ofRead MoreParenting: Diana Baumrind Theory648 Words   |  3 Pagesparent can be with their kids. Many dont take the time to see how a parent is truly. Most parents dont realize how their parenting methods affect their childs development. Most parents dont realize how bad or good of a parent they are. Many of them dont see that their kids imitate the methods they use to discipline their kid s. In fact there are many types of different beliefs of parents. But there are certain people who observe the children’s behavior. Because sometimes people can notice howRead MoreParenting : The Right Way1220 Words   |  5 PagesKassidi Davies Professor Morrison ENG 1101 2 October 2015 Parenting the Right Way Every parent has a different preference on how they want to raise their children, some more strict then others but all attempting to get their children ready for the â€Å"real world† as some call it. There are three types of parenting, all very different; one being permissive, another being authoritative, and the last being authoritarian. Often parents are known to suggest ideas to other parents on how they should disciplineRead MoreTiger Parenting Article Analysis747 Words   |  3 PagesChinese parenting. The difference between Western and Chinese parenting is the expectation of the children are different. The Western parents allow their children more freedom then the Chinese parents. In this article, the idea of Tiger Parenting is used. Tiger parents is parenting style that controls what the kids are doing. Susan Adams wrote an article entitled â€Å"Tiger Moms Don’t Raise Superior Kids, Says New Study.† Adams’ thesis is that she wants you to know that there are different types of parentingRead MorePsychology : An Exploration, By Saundra K. Essay1285 Words   |  6 Pagestopic on parenting styles in chapter 8 to be very interesting. I found it to be interesting because I can think on many life situations as a child that applies to this concept very easily, which I never realized before. There are three different types of parenting styles. The first style is called authoritarian parenting. Authoritarian parenting is a style when the parent constantly demands rules on their children and nothing other than rules. In our textbook it is stated that, â€Å"this type of parentRead MoreCause and Effects of Parenting Essay examples648 Words   |  3 PagesCause and Effects of Parenting Styles What are the cause and effects of different styles of parenting? Essentially, there are three types of parenting; authoritarian, authoritative and permissive. I believe there are no lines drawn in the sand separating these styles. In other words, a parent could actually entertain all three. I hope after reading this essay you will have a better understanding of the cause and effect of each style of parenting. The first style of parenting I will discuss isRead MoreThe 4 Parenting Styles : What These Styles Are And How They Affect Children Essay767 Words   |  4 Pageschild behavior however, It should be addressed that different parenting styles can also effect child behavior and that these parenting styles are categorized into four distinctive styles: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved parenting. Maryann Rosenthal, author of â€Å"The 4 Parenting Styles: What Works and What Doesn’t† describes what these styles are and how they affect children. First off, Rosenthal describes that each parenting style has two main components which are responsivenessRead MoreParenting Styles Diana Baumrind999 Words   |  4 Pages The way a parent parents a child has a dramatic effect on a child’s development. In fact, research has revealed that parenting styles can impact a child’s cognitive, psychological, and social growth, which affects children in the childhood years, teenage years and adolescence. The reason is that children develop through a number of stimuli, communication, and conversation, which surround them. Families provide a structured environment in which a child lives while parents serve as role models andRead MoreImportance Of Parenting Essay1519 Words   |  7 PagesThe Importance of Parenting Styles There are many different types of parenting styles in the world today. The way one chooses to raise their children, can play a very big role in a child’s behavior and success within the future. In 1967, a woman named Diana Baumrind contributed to the knowledge in socioemotional development by studying and researching parenting styles. She originally stated that there are four types of parenting styles; authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and neglectful. Each

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Rules of Engagement of Warfare - 808 Words

Warfare is a devastating quality of the human condition. Nowhere in nature do other species hunt and kill their fellow members for political reasons and at a mass scale. Attempts to systemize and standardize the rules and regulations of warfare are difficult if not impossible to appease every key player involve. The purpose of this essay is to examine the rules of engagement of warfare as a guiding principle that is subjective and not uniform throughout the system of war itself. This inconsistency will be discussed by presenting the Vietnam War through six different levels of perception located in the chain of command. This exercise will prove that each segment of the war fighting contingency has its own subjective reasons to follow rules of engagement. Individual Soldier The individual soldier that fought during the Vietnam War must be viewed in a unique perspective unlike todays circumstances. A great majority of the individual soldiers that saw combat in Vietnam were drafted and had no legal recourse to avoiding this duty. Rules to such a fight seen at this level were seen as temporary rule changes to normal life. Here the individual soldier must survive for one year in order to escape the hell of combat. This is a limited but understandable view of this situation. Enemy combatants were viewed almost as peers suffering through a temporary struggle much like their situation. Rules in this case are merely a means to an end, at the end state is survival and removal from aShow MoreRelatedHistory of Warfare and the Rules of Engagement714 Words   |  3 PagesThe Information Assignment Introduction Throughout the history of warfare the rules of engagement (ROE) were designed to control the actions of soldiers and focus them on achieving the larger objectives. In Vietnam, the ROE was utilized to constrain the activities of personnel in these areas. This because of continuing worries about the possibility of the war escalating into a larger conflict. To understand how this occurred requires examining the limited war strategy in conjunction with theRead MoreEssay on Hybrid Warfare or Asymmetric Warfare?1235 Words   |  5 PagesHybrid Warfare or Asymmetric Warfare? To have a discussion on hybrid warfare, we need to have a clear idea of what are the differences between conventional and hybrid warfare are. Conventional warfare is a nonnuclear conflict with rules of engagement formed by an agreement or compact. These rules for conventional warfare are spelled out by the Law of War and cover acceptable weapons, treatment of prisoners, torture, surrender, and much more. Unconventional is best described as guerilla and covertRead MoreThe European Colonization Of Africa1461 Words   |  6 PagesEuropean colonization of Africa, including economic and political motives, with the Berlin Conference serving as a catalyst. Africans resisted the European invasions of their lands, with the two main methods of opposition were guerilla warfare and direct military engagement. European influence on Africa still remains today, though these influences are generally negative and hurt Africa’s overall development. The imperatives of capitalist industrialization, including the call for guaranteed sources ofRead MoreHow Chris Kyle Was The Most Lethal Sniper During American History And For His Autobiography American Sniper1685 Words   |  7 Pagespossessed that gave him the vision to initiate a change to tactics for the USMC that prevented loss of life and started new training for Marines. I will also discuss his internal battle with the difference between ethical code, specifically the rules of engagement and his own personal values and beliefs. I will also reflect on what his example of leadership has done for me and why all of this has led me to believe that Chris Kyle was a visionary and ethical leader. Visionary Leader During the battleRead More Napoleon Bonaparte Essay1395 Words   |  6 PagesEngland’s imperialistic rule in Africa. Napoleon and his army returned in the August of 1799. Shortly after he took part in the Brumaire coup of November 1799, finishing as a member of the Consulate, Frances new ruling triumvirate.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the Novel by Robert M. Epstein, his military background was identified and how he planned his attacks were broken down so that the average person could understand them. He was the individual who introduced the ideas of modern warfare to the global affairs. TheRead MoreThe War Has Been A Part Of Human History Essay1490 Words   |  6 Pagesnecessarily should be a way to stop violence, but there are ways to have smarter warfare. It is easy to say that we must remain absolutist but the opposite is incredibly tactically beneficiary in the battlefield as the enemy has shown. Many don’t completely agree with the ill written essay of Elaine Scarry, but on a more humanitarian side, it’s possible to see where she is trying to come from. These rules of engagement should be in place to save the innocents that are dragged into the conflict unwillinglyRead MoreFrom Corsets and Crocheting to Kevlar and Combat: The Journey of a Female Soldier1728 Words   |  7 Pagesmil). The current engagements in the Middle East and the change from a traditional style of battle causes the issue of allowing women in combat arms branches to arise as some see their current situations as a direct violation of the policy. The issue revolves around whether women should be assimilated into US armed forces and have no different rank status than men and the current complications that are caused by women experiencing combat because of the changing style of warfare. The change wasRead MoreThe World Set Up By Homer754 Words   |  4 Pagesdescription provided by Homer evokes the awe-inspiring power yet beauty of battle. The paradoxical description of loveliness and danger conveyed within the imagery of fire and words such as â€Å"glisten† convey the enigma of warfare between attractiveness and threat. Upon the introduction to warfare, however, the emphasis shifts drastically as the heroic motif of control gives way to increasing desperation. Combatants on both sides â€Å"flew upon each other like wolves, man and man crushing one upon the other† (4Read MoreThe American Of The United States Army973 Words   |  4 PagesAs for the US Army, they had been given orders by which they had to abide which lacked defined rules of engagement. This meant that they had to complete the mission, and their superiors did not necessarily care if the natives were pleased or harmed with the outcomes. As far as they were concerned, there was land th at had not been claimed legally and they wanted it. This was a huge change for the natives from when they had met Lewis and Clark on their journey exploring the Louisiana Territory decadesRead MoreThe Ethics Of Artificial Intelligence1409 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"LAWS have been described as the third revolution in warfare, after gunpowder and nuclear weapons.† For the scientific community to put autonomous systems on a pedestal next to the two revolutions in warfare should incite fear into the populace, as we are on the brink of the third revolution in warfare. It is due to this urgency that several guidelines are being discussed within the artificial intelligence community, as well as on the global warfare scale. One such proposed law comes with the Geneva

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Lago, The Plotter Essay - 1284 Words

Othello is a steadfast leader that the reader finds him or herself wanting to be more like. His experiences are unparalleled and that’s what makes him such a popular leader. He has seen many battles and fought many fights; his stories are legendary among those who revere him. In our day he would be the man every man wants to be like and the man every woman wants, but even those who are revered have enemies. If this were not the case then there would be no means for him to have become so revered. In overcoming so many obstacles Othello made a most convincing enemy. In this article we will explore Iago’s dark secrets and expose and examine what makes him such a great villain. William Shakespeare used various literary devices such as†¦show more content†¦Iago, who is supposed to be Othello’s faithful servant, is instead riddled with jealousy and seeks the downfall of his master. Iago sets Barbantio’s house against Othello. By instruction of Iago, Rod erigo was to, â€Å"Rouse him (Barbantio): make after him, poison his delight, proclaim him in the streets; incense her kinsmen, and, though he in a fertile climate dwell, plague him with flies: though that his joy be joy, yet throw such changes of vexation on’t, As it may lose some colour† (Shakespeare 7). Iago’s jealousy makes him a plotter. He turns Barbantio against Othello to gain advantage over him. When comparing characteristics it is quite clear that Iago is secretly Othello’s opposite. The protagonist is an obedient soldier and gentlemen, and the antagonist is a deceitful saboteur. In a way these characters complement each other. All of Othello’s actions make Iago seem all the more dark and devious, while all of Iago’s actions make Othello seem all the more valiant. In this sense these two characters need each other to be who they are as antagonist and protagonist. Another element to consider are the metaphors used to show how deceitful Iago is. In this particular passage we gain insight into Iago’s cunning. â€Å"Our bodies are our gardens, to the which our wills are our gardeners: so that if we will plant nettles, or sow lettuce, set hyssop and weed up thyme, supply it with one gender of herbs, or distract it with many, either to haveShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Nigerian Civil War1344 Words   |  6 Pagesleft-leaning junior Army officers mostly majors and captains. This coup led to the accession of General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, the head of the Nigerian Army, as head of state of Nigeria. This coup benefited mostly the Igbos because most of the coup plotters were Igbos and Ironsi, an Igbo, promoted many Igbos in the Army at the expense of Yoruba and Hausa officers. On the 29th of July 1966, the Northerners executed a counter-coup. This coup was led by Lt. Col. Murtala Muhammed. It placed Lt. Col. YakubuRead MoreFeasibility Study on S etting Up an Environmental Laboratory9679 Words   |  39 Pagescoined from the first letter of each of the Managing Director’s full-name (Stephen Temitope Oriyomi Oluwatobi Kayode). STOOK Environmental Services Company proposed location is at 4, Fatai Oko-Oloyun Avenue, Hotel Bus Stop, along LASU road, Igando, Lagos, Nigeria. Our aim is to meet the need of industries, agencies, and living-homes as related with environmental; management, planning, compliance and monitoring, by offering broad base of environmental services geared toward protecting the earth resourcesRead MoreFeasibility Study on Setting Up an Environmental Laboratory9668 Words   |  39 Pagescoined from the first letter of each of the Managing Director’s full-name (Stephen Temitope Oriyomi Oluwatobi Kayode). STOOK Environmental Services Company proposed location is at 4, Fatai Oko-Oloyun Avenue, Hotel Bus Stop, along LASU road, Igando, Lagos, Nigeria. Our aim is to meet the need of industries, agenci es, and living-homes as related with environmental; management, planning, compliance and monitoring, by offering broad base of environmental services geared toward protecting the earth resources

Aids in the African American Community Free Essays

In the mind of the public, the AIDS problem is undoubtedly linked to sexual behaviors and possibly perceived to be a result of promiscuity, nonmonogamous sexual activity, and a well-deserved problem that should affect gay and homosexual people. To a certain extent, efforts to combat AIDS in the African-American communities have also been hindered by the fact that we know very little, beyond stereotypes and myths, about the sexuality of African-Americans. These perceptions have provided much of the confusion about what we should do about HIV/AIDS, or for that matter any of the health problems that are at epidemic levels in the African American communities throughout the United States. We will write a custom essay sample on Aids in the African American Community or any similar topic only for you Order Now It has also been the case that several of the important sources of leadership in the African-American communities have utilized the AIDS epidemic to develop and promote extremely conservative religious and moral agendas and punitive responses toward persons who are already considered to be unfit members of the community. For example, during the first wave of the AIDS epidemic there were several stories within the African-American communities across the United States about ministers who were preaching to their congregations about how AIDS is â€Å"God’s punishment for homosexual people who sin.† While there is no way to determine the extent of this attitude among African-American ministers and preachers, approximately one-fourth of the sample (28 percent) of African-American college students was in agreement with this belief. â€Å"There is a long history in the United States of African-Americans and other minority groups being devalued and of having their behavior labeled deviant. In the case of AIDS, the victims are further socially ostracized. A prime example is the fact that Haitians were at one time considered a risk group. Because of this, many Haitians lost their jobs and experienced extreme levels of racial discrimination, not because they had AIDS, but because they were Haitians and therefore linked to AIDS† (Moore and LeBaron, 1986). So, it appears that efforts to combat HIV/AIDS have been hindered by (1) our lack of knowledge about the sexuality of African-Americans, (2) research that has not seriously examined the variability of behavior and attitudes within African-American groups, (3) community and religious leaders who view the AIDS problems as punishment from God, (4) our intolerance of gays and bisexuals within the African American community, and (5) the lack of attention directed at the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases prior to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. If one accepts these observations, then what are we to do in order to develop effective and culturally sensitive AIDS-prevention messages that will reach African-Americans, who are not monogamous, are not abstinent, and who do not use IV-drugs. One solution is to make sure that African-Americans have an adequate understanding of the factors associated with the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Overall, the pattern of the results indicates that African Americans are very knowledgeable about AIDS, but there appears to be a gap between knowledge and risky sexual behaviors. The development of culturally sensitive AIDS-prevention programs for African-American college age adults may be facilitated by considering some of the insights gained from the study. For example, data suggest the gap between knowledge and risky sexual behavior is likely to be filled with different attitudes and beliefs for males versus females, or individuals with multiple versus non-multiple sexual partners, or individuals with or without a history of STDs, or individuals with or without HIV/AIDS. (Nikitta Foston, 2002). Information uncovered by this investigation revealed that males are less knowledgeable about several factors involved in the transmission of AIDS than females. On the other hand, individuals with multiple partners were more likely to believe that AIDS is caused by bacteria or the same virus that causes VD. Knowledge about the factors associated with the transmission of HIV/AIDS was essentially identical for subjects who practiced unprotected anal intercourse and those subjects who did not. Individuals with HIV/AIDS correctly answered only 55 percent of the questions concerning the transmission of AIDS while those not exposed correctly answered 85 percent of the AIDS knowledge questions. These data suggest that educational information and self-assessment instruments may need to be created for and targeted at specific African-American groups rather than rely on a wide-scale mass media campaign to reach all individuals. One way to accomplish this aim may be to create materials that enable African-Americans to actively question and evaluate their own risk. Perhaps one of the problems that has to be overcome in order to implement such a plan is to identify the explicitness needed in the HIV/AIDS prevention messages for African-Americans who are not monogamous and engaging in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., anal intercourse). The possible means of how to minimize the gap between knowledge and risky behaviors could go on and on, but the one way that is likely to result in a more favorable outcome is to simply ask the people involved to provide solutions. Seldom have we taken this position around a major public health problem, but what can we lose by asking African-Americans to generate solutions to problems that are the focus of so much human suffering. One of the barriers to effective HIV/AIDS education programs in African-American communities is the fact that the people and organizations have not been encouraged to believe that HIV/AIDS prevention would be more effective when planned, executed, and propagated by members of their own community. In other words, African-American community members are not involved in the empowerment process which stresses both individual determinations over one’s own life and strong democratic participation in the life of one’s community. The notion of empowerment presupposes that African-American community members have the competency to intervene on their own behalf but lack the necessary resources. How to cite Aids in the African American Community, Papers

Environment free essay sample

â€Å"Road salt† is a common term used for some chloride salts, including sodium chloride (NaCl), which are used as de-icing agents on roads. The application of these de-icers on roads and other impervious surfaces in North America during winter months was in practice since the 1960s. The amount of snow fall is so high in these areas that snow and ice management becomes very essential to prevent road accidents, to maintain a continuous flow of traffic and to ensure safe pedestrian travel during winter months. Sodium chloride is the most commonly used de-icing agent (Road salting). Sometimes, it can be used along with some anti-caking agents like sodium hexacyanoferrate (II) or sand and grits. These elements like sodium, chloride, ferrocyanide and other impurities seep into our environment when the snow or ice melts, and poses a threat to water bodies, soil, vegetation and large number of species sustaining on them (Environmental, Health and Economic Impacts of Road Salt). De-icing of the roads is, beyond a doubt, very essential, as it saves lives by preventing accidents, but there are more alternatives other than the use of road salt which I will also explain. This research paper explains how road salt acts as a de-icing agent and what factors promote its widespread use. The primary aim of this paper is to give an elaborate idea about how road salt damages our environment. It also provides a list of some safer alternatives which can be used for de-icing. Road salt does not allow the ice or snow to adhere to the pavement and form a hard pack. Sodium chloride can readily depress the freezing point of ice, so that the ice starts melting. Salt crystals can pull water molecules from ice crystals to form brine. The formation of brine facilitates the process of meting of ice. However, the rate of melting depends upon the temperature at that time. At temperatures below 15 ° F, sodium chloride cannot form solution efficiently; hence its efficiency is reduced. In fact, even if sodium chloride is applied at high rates at these temperatures, it cannot melt snow or ice effectively. Hence, people involved in road management should acquire knowledge about the current and expected temperatures (Road Salt and Water Quality, 1). Sodium chloride also prevents the formation of ice on roads. Depending upon the conditions, road salt is applied as either liquid or solid medium. When compared with other salts, sodium chloride is less expensive with an average cost of $50 $60 per ton. Some other characteristics like easy availability and ease in handling and storage make it a more commonly used de-icing agent. Salt as such is non-hazardous to the environment and does not degrade to produce harmful substances. Problem of bio-accumulation is also not associated with sodium chloride. Addition of an anti-caking agent like sodium hexacyanoferrate (II) in low levels (below 100mg/kg), prevents the salt from caking, and makes it readily usable during the winter months (Road Salt and Water Quality, 1) (De-Icing the Environment). When dissolved in melting ice or snow, road salt gets dissociated into 40 percent sodium ions (Na+) and 60 percent chloride ions (Cl-). Chloride settles down in the bottom of the water bodies because of its density and increased mobility. Chloride is completely soluble and mobile. At a concentration of 230 mg/l and above, chloride is toxic to aquatic life and affects vegetation and wild life. Chloride gets accumulated in the long run as no natural process can break it down or metabolize it. Chloride cannot be absorbed by the vegetation. Gradual accumulation of chloride has damaged many water bodies, by changing the taste of the water. On the other hand, sodium (Na+) ions are subjected to ion exchange. These ions can either bind to the negatively charged soil particles, hence altering the soil chemistry, or be taken up in biological processes. They promote the release of nutrients into the groundwater and surface water, hence affecting the aquatic environment. Anti-caking agents like ferrocyanide can also impact the human life and environment, when used in large quantities. Exposure to sunlight and action of certain types of bacteria stimulates the release of cyanide ions from these additives. This compound has been added to the list of toxic pollutants by USEPA in 2003. Soil gets impacted at every stage of de-icing. Improper maintenance of salt piles by road management people may contaminate the soil and vegetation growing on the road side, as they become saturated with road salt. In fact, wherever soil comes in contact with road salt for a long time, the soil chemistry gets altered by the exchange of sodium ions with other positively charged ions like, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. These exchanged ions are released into the ground water. This ion exchange also increases the mobilization of metals. The soil permeability is altered as the soil becomes impervious and water infiltration is blocked. The overall fertility of the soil gets reduced and the soil pH and stability are also affected. Excess of salt damages the soil biota, especially some bacteria, which participate in the structuring of the soil. As a result, the soil is subjected to erosion and increases the sediment in runoff (Environmental, Health and Economic Impacts of Road Salt). The primary impact of salt on plants is by the creation of the osmotic imbalances, due to which water absorption is inhibited and root growth is reduced. The uptake of nutrients by the plants is also affected, hence affecting the long term growth of the plants. Accumulation of chloride for a long time in plants leads to osmotic stress and the plant tissues get dehydrated similar to a drought-like condition. The germination of grass and wildflower seeds on the road side is also affected by the high salinity. As the penetration of air and water is hampered, the growth of the new plant shoots is also affected (Wegner and Yaggi). Deposition of salt on plants may add to the weight and promote tissue damage by local dehydration. The plants may physically break at these damaged points. Splashing and spraying of salt on the foliage of the plants leads to scorching of leaves, defoliation and dying of twigs. Degradation of vegetation indirectly affects the wild life, by damaging their habitat, food resources, breeding or nesting sites and shelter places. Mammals like deer and moose consume the salt crystals on the roadway, to remove their sodium deficiency. Strange behavioral abnormality like loss of fear of humans and vehicles is noticed in these animals when they drink salt-rich water. As a result, these animals succumb to vehicular accidents. Over consumption of salt by these animals increases the salt toxicity in their blood and tissues (Environmental, Health and Economic Impacts of Road Salt). Birds often consume the salt crystals as they are similar to seeds. Even small quantities of salt are toxic to birds, leading to their death. Studies have shown that even a single salt crystal can lead to behavioral abnormalities and these birds are more vulnerable to car strike (Wegner and Yaggi). Surface waters, rich in sodium chloride, could also be toxic to many aquatic species like fish, amphibians, insects, and macro invertebrates. An elevated level of chloride affects the growth, survival and reproduction of many species. Some toxic metals get released from the sediments in the presence of salt in water. As a result the oxygen gets reduced, which harms the growth of aquatic species. The distribution and cycling of oxygen and nutrients gets affected. The fresh water fish are mainly affected by the increase in the salt concentration and a drastic change in the species diversity is noticed (Environmental, Health and Economic Impacts of Road Salt) (Wegner and Yaggi). The salt on the highway seeps into the ground water in a number of ways like during runoff from the highways, migration of dissolved salt along with water to water table, during the melting of ice, etc. The presence of high salt content not only changes the taste but is also harmful to people suffering from hypertension, as they are advised to take low quantities of sodium. A concentration of sodium above 20 mg per liter of water is considered to be harmful by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Presence of chloride at high levels is not injurious to health, but the taste and odor of the water gets affected. Due to increase in salt concentrations, many water bodies and wells have been abandoned (Environmental, Health and Economic Impacts of Road Salt) (Wegner and Yaggi). Conductivity of water is enhanced by the presence of chloride ions and this increases the corrosion of bridges, buildings, etc. Many parts of the vehicles like brake linings, bumpers and the body get corroded. Huge cost is involved in the protection of the corrosion and repair of the damaged parts. Even though the use of road salt is hazardous, the use of better management practices can minimize the loss to the environment. Some other non-hazardous ways of treating snow and ice on roadways are: †¢ Salt or other de-icing chemicals should not be used to burn snow, rather snow or ice should be removed with mechanical devices like shovel, plow, etc. †¢ A thin layer of snow can be easily melted with the help of deicing agents. Hence, during the snow storm, a shovel should be used to remove as much of snow as possible. Later, the area should be properly swept, so that the remaining snow does not form ice making the area slippery. Ice on the surface can be scraped with the help of a flat hoe. These practices would minimize the use of de-icing agents. †¢ The equipment used for spreading should be calibrated so that optimum quantities of salt is released, minimizing the environmental impacts. †¢ Knowledge about the temperatures at which different materials used for de-icing are most effective is advantageous. †¢ Pre-wetting the salt with brine reduces the application rates by 20 percent. †¢ Proactive application of de-icing chemicals before the accumulation of snow or ice minimizes the quantity of chemicals required for de-icing. A mixture of salt and sand should not be applied as they work against each other. †¢ Sensitive areas like public water sources should be identified and safer alternatives to road salt should be used in these areas. †¢ Identification of salt sensitive vegetation and minimization of the use of de-icing agents containing chlorides can prevent the damage to the vegetation. †¢ During the storage of sand and salt, care should be taken to store them on impervious surfaced area, which is covered and has adequate drainage facility. This will prevent the run-off of these substances and accumulation in the water bodies. During loading, care should be taken to prevent the spilling of salt or sand. By better management one can minimize the loss to the environment and the search of safer alternatives might decrease the environmental impacts completely. Some chemicals have been used as road salt alternatives, but they were either used for a short duration or in limited quantities. The long term impact of these chemicals is yet to be studied. Some of these chemicals are: Calcium chloride – It is the second most commonly used de-icing agent and it can perform well at lower temperatures. It can be directly applied in liquid form and prevent the bonding of snow or ice to the pavement. However, some disadvantages like, difficulty in storing and handling, higher cost, environmental impact of chloride, tendency to corrode metals, have limited its use. Potassium chloride – It is a naturally occurring material but can damage concrete, damage the vegetation by burning leaves and inhibit plant growth It can prove to be hazardous to environment due to the presence of chloride. These disadvantages have limited the use of this material for de-icing (Road Salt and Water Quality, 4). Magnesium chloride – It shows faster action in comparison to sodium chloride and is effective in very cold conditions (at a temperature of 5 °F). However, incorrect application might lead to slippery condition and also shows corrosive action on metals. . Urea – It is a fertilizer and when used in huge quantities for de-icing, it can increase the nutrient content of the water systems, which might lead to eutrophication in future. It gets rapidly broken down into ammonia which gets released into the environment. It also shows corrosive action (Road Salt and Water Quality, 4). Potassium acetate – This material is biodegradable and has shown less environmental impact. It shows high performance and is less corrosive in nature. Except mild irritation after inhalation, no other health hazards have been recorded. This material depletes the oxygen from the aquatic ecosystems temporarily and might stimulate the growth of the plants. However, further research is required to ascertain the efficacy of the potassium acetate as road salt. Calcium Magnesium Acetate – This material is prepared by mixing limestone with acetic acid. It shows less negative effects on aquatic biota, soil and vegetation. The impact of this material on ground water has been noted to be less, when compared with sodium chloride. The main limiting factor associated with the use of potassium acetate and calcium magnesium acetate, is their huge cost. As they are costly and less accessible, they are presently being used on bridges as they show less corrosive action and in environmental sensitive areas. Research promoting the huge production of these materials can reduce the cost and prevent environmental hazards. Simultaneously, the long term impacts of these materials should also be analyzed (Wegner and Yaggi). Some natural substances show the capacity of de-icing, but generally they cannot be used commercially on a widespread manner. But initiatives taken from each home, depending upon the availability of these substances, can lessen the environmental impacts to some extent. These substances include: Sand –Many properties like inexpensive nature, no harmful impacts on the environment, easy sweeping capacity and tendency to provide traction, make it a better alternative to salt. Brick sand can better serve the purpose as it is granular and coarser than the regular sand. It is easily available at building supply stores. Sand can absorb sunlight and warm the ice or snow lying beneath. This will facilitate the faster melting of ice (Road Salts Alternatives). Ashes – People having a wood burning fireplace can use ashes as it is economical and convenient to use. Ashes also absorb sunlight and provide traction, hence increasing the rate at which ice melts. Cat litters – It is one of the expensive options but if it is available at home, it can be used (Road Salts Alternatives). Agricultural byproducts – Some agricultural byproducts obtained from corn have lower freezing point due to which they delay the process of the formation of ice crystals. However, they are not efficient in melting the snow or ice. These products can be used to prevent the formation of ice (Road Salt and Water Quality). De-icing is very essential to treat many roadways so everyday life can carry on, but it should not be at the cost of environment. We should be taking measures to preserve our environment, not damage it. Which is why we need to look for and use safer and environmental friendly alternatives for de-icing. C/R B. B

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

The Effects of Technology on the Accounting Profession Paper free essay sample

Click the Virtual Organization link on the student website to access company information on Riordan Manufacturing. Then, select one of the accounting cycles. This selection is the basis of this and subsequent Learning Team assignments, so obtain faculty approval for your selection. Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper addressing the following: o Identify the five accounting cycles and explain how this organization uses the accounting cycle you have selected. o Comment on the strengths and weaknesses of the internal controls related to this cycle. Explain how you would integrate this part of the accounting cycle into an enterprise-wide accounting information system. o Differentiate between the various types of information systems necessary to achieve this integration. o Demonstrate the flow of accounting information through this organization. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Week 3 Individual Assignment: Accounting Information Systems Simulation Summary Complete the Accounting Information Systems simulation located on the student website. We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects of Technology on the Accounting Profession Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Write a 350-word summary addressing the following: o What are the advantages of having the same person performing multiple activities in a particular process? What are the disadvantages? o Where would you draw the line between cost-benefit analysis and accuracy of records? o How would prioritization affect Ramos International’s expected loss over the current year? Format your summary consistent with APA guidelines. Learning Team Assignment: Hardware and Software Selection Paper Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper using the same step of the accounting cycle your Learning Team selected for its Accounting Cycle Description Paper that examines the hardware and software necessary to integrate this accounting process into an automated system. Discuss what information might need to be shared between the different cycles. Include the following in your paper: o Who needs access to the information? o What controls need to be in place? o What types of reports need to be generated? o What information should be available through the corporate intranet or the Internet? Week 4 Individual Assignment: Database Definition Exercise Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Database Definitions Exercise located on the student website. Individual Assignment: Assignments From the Readings Write a response to the following assignment from the Core Concepts of Accounting Information Systems text: o Chapter 13: Case Analyses 13–22 (Martin Shoes, Inc. ) Learning Team Assignment: Database Tables Exercise Develop at least two tables, using the same step of the accounting cycle selected for your previous Learning Team assignments, that could be used in a database for your selected accounting cycle. Use keys to demonstrate the relationships between your database tables. Use fictitious data when entering information into the tables. Note. A key is a unique identifier that distinguishes rows within a database table. To view examples, please refer to your text. Week 5 Individual Assignment: Sarbanes-Oxley Act Article Analysis Use the Electronic Reserve Readings, the University Library, the Internet, or other credible resources to locate an article that examines the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Write a 700- to 1,050-word summary of this article addressing the following: o Explain how the Sarbanes-Oxley Act affects the internal control of your organization or an organization of your choosing. o Discuss auditing around the computer and through the computer, the relevance of each, and how it affects your organization or an organization of your choosing. Cite your article in your summary, and prepare to discuss your article in class. Format your summary consistent with APA guidelines